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Research

This section contains research projects that we were able to find information on that pertain to either traditional or non-traditional security or community building and are conducted by institutions in the Asia-Pacific or have that region as a central aspect of the project theme. The projects were either commenced, completed, or ongoing in the first half of 2004. In this compilation the projects have been split into three categories—international relations, non-traditional security and regional cooperation and community building.

International Relations

1. "America's Role in Asia" Project
Asia Foundation, U.S.

Description: Research to be completed by autumn 2004. This project brings together American and Asian policymakers and scholars to assess U.S.- Asian relations. During a series of workshops over nine months, leading American and Asian policymakers and scholars will analyze the challenges facing the U.S. in Asia and recommend policy initiatives to the U.S. administration and Congress. This follows previous project by the same name conducted in 1992 and 2000.

Related events: Three regional workshops will be held during 2004. Ambassador Kim Kyung-won, President of the Institute of Social Sciences in Seoul and former Korean ambassador to the U.S., will chair the Northeast Asia workshop. Ambassador Tommy Koh will chair the Southeast Asia workshop. He is Singapore's Ambassador-at-Large and president of the Institute for Policy Studies, and served as Singapore's Ambassador to the United States and United Nations in the 1980s. Ambassador Farooq Sobhan, president of the Bangladesh Enterprise Institute and former Permanent Secretary of Bangladesh's Ministry of Foreign Affairs will chair the South Asia workshop.

Output: The project will culminate with the release of separate American and Asian reports prior to the U.S. elections in the fall of 2004.

  1. The American report will be produced by a bipartisan working group of two dozen leading policymakers and scholars. Their report will build on the views and recommendations of the Asian report, and will cover issues such as security, economics and trade, political and social developments, globalization, nuclear proliferation, and international terrorism. The American working group will be co-chaired by Ambassador Michael H. Armacost and Ambassador J. Stapleton Roy.
  2. The Asian report will derive from discussions at three regional workshops featuring leading experts and policymakers from South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Northeast Asia.

Contact: Web site: http://www.asiafoundation.org/IR/aria.html

2. "Building on the TCOG: Enhancing Trilateral Policy Coordination Among the United States, Japan, and the Republic of Korea"

The Japan Forum for International Relations, the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis (IFPA), U.S. and Yonsei University's Graduate School of International Studies (GSIS), Korea.

Description: 2004—ongoing project. Researchers are exploring the prospects for expanding the Trilateral Coordination and Oversight Group (TCOG) process as a key U.S.-South Korea and U.S.-Japan Alliance management tool. Based on archival research and interviews with policy makers in all three countries, the project team will prepare a set of practical recommendations for improving current TCOG processes and upgrading the mechanism to address at least one new trilateral policy concern (beyond short-term North Korea policy). The team will then test the recommendations by means of an exercise that simulates a TCOG-like meeting to further improve the usefulness of the recommendations and increase their prospects for near-term implementation.

Premise: One of the most successful innovations of the last four years in the area of U.S.-South Korea and U.S.-Japan alliance management has been the establishment and utilization of the Trilateral Coordination and Oversight Group (TCOG) for developing common policies toward North Korea. This periodic meeting of high-level officials from the United States, South Korea, and Japan has allowed the three governments to discuss together a range of options for dealing more effectively with North Korea, and it has provided a hitherto absent forum for coordinating policies on a regular basis. The results have included a better understanding among the three of each other's policy objectives and methods for achieving them, a lessening of concern if ends or means do not exactly correspond, a coordination of policies toward the North, and a more unified voice in dealing with the regime in Pyongyang. A key question that arises is the degree to which the TCOG process can and should be strengthened and/or adapted as a way to encourage trilateral coordination beyond issues of immediate North Korean policy and, by means of such coordination, to strengthen the two bilateral alliances and establish connecting threads between them—a development that is seen as essential if existing alliance structures are to evolve appropriately and thrive in the future.

Funding: Funded by Japan Foundation's Center for Global Partnership (CGP).

Contact: Web site: http://www.ifpa.org/projects/cgp_tcog.htm

3. Evolving Approaches to Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific and the Multilateralism and Regionalism Programme
Institute for Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), Singapore.

Description: Multi-year project. Participants from Asia-Pacific and Europe. The project addresses the following questions: why have some forms of security cooperation and institutionalization in the Asia-Pacific proven more feasible than others? For example, why is the region historically more receptive to cooperative security and security community approaches than collective security or collective defence, which have been the hallmark of the European security architecture? Second, do bilateral modes of security cooperation, traditionally salient in the Asia-Pacific, complement or compete with emerging multilateral structures? If the relationship is competitive, then what kind of transformation is needed to develop a more complimentary relationship between the two?

Premise: Several important developments in the regional security environment of the Asia-Pacific necessitate a review of our current understanding of the region's security order. These include the rise of China, revitalization of America's bilateral alliances in the region, especially the US-Japanese alliance, Japan's efforts to expand its role in peacekeeping and multilateral security activities, the difficulties facing an expanded ASEAN, doubts about the credibility of ASEAN and the ASEAN Regional Forum in the wake of the Asian crisis, and the emergence of an ASEAN Plus Three economic and political framework.

Related events:

  1. Conference on "Evolving Approaches to Security in the Asia Pacific", held in Singapore on 8-10 December 2002.
  2. Workshop on "UN Peace Operations and the Asia Pacific Region", jointly hosted by the UN University, held in Tokyo on 12-13 February 2003.
  3. Workshop on "Globalisation and Economic Security in East Asia: Governance and Institutions", held in Singapore on 11-12 September 2003.
  4. Conference on "Reassessing Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific Region", jointly hosted by Georgetown University, held in Washington, D.C., on 20-21 November 2003.

Funding: Initial funding was secured from the Sasakawa Peace Foundation.

Contact: Web site: Project Director Professor Amitav Acharya of IDSS. Web site: http://www.ntu.edu.sg/idss/research_03a.htm

4. Global Governance—In Quest of a New International Order
National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Japan.

Description: April 2004-March 2005. This research will examine the topic of global governance, America's current role in global governance, especially in light of an increasing tendency for the United States to act unilaterally, and it will analyze the factors determining both America's domestic and foreign policies in this regard. The research will also seek to reveal how we should respond to the chaotic situations in Afghanistan and Iraq and how to face the new threats to global society.

Related events: An international forum convened by NIRA.

Output: The researchers plan to make proposals for new methods in global governance as well as for Japan's role in that.

Contact: Web site: http://www.nira.go.jp/pubj/newsletter/nn05.pdf

5. Prospects for East Asian Nuclear Disarmament
Hiroshima Peace Institute

Description: April 2003-March 2005. The researchers are from China, Japan, Korea and U.S. This project will address the basic question: "How have developments in the East Asian region helped erode current efforts toward global nuclear disarmament, and what actions in the East Asia region can effectively help promote this goal?" The project's research agenda aims to create new knowledge, insights and proposals for reducing the role of nuclear threat policies in East Asia as a means to promote global nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament. It will address the role that U.S. nuclear weapons policies, as well as missile defense and pre-emptive military action policies, play in East Asian security and how this impacts East Asian efforts to promote regional nonproliferation. Also on the agenda are the U.S.-Japan relationship and alliance, the policies of states in the region, especially non-nuclear ones, Korean peninsula developments and the possibility of developing multilateral regional initiatives for nonproliferation.

Related events: To promote this research, two workshops will be held and attended by the research team members for exchanging information and ideas. Once the report is finalized there will be Research Presentation Symposia in Hiroshima and Washington, D.C. These will involve both media and public sessions.

Output: Print and electronic dissemination of research findings and papers. The project will produce long-term and contextual insights to contemporary nuclear proliferation and arms control policy problems. It is hoped this will contribute to the better understanding of long-term prospects for global nuclear disarmament and will offer contemporary policy-relevant proposals for making realistic progress toward nuclear disarmament in regional contexts.

Contact: Web site: http://serv.peace.hiroshima-cu.ac.jp/English/index.htm

6. Rise of China and Regional Implications for East Asia
Centre Asie, Institut Français de Relations Internationals (IFRI), France.

Description: Part of the Regional Integration in East Asia Program. The objective of the program is to analyze the regional reorganization currently under way with an emphasis on the role played by China. Commencing September 2004, for 6-9 months.

Premise: Among its many side-effects, the financial crisis of 1997-98 has rekindled interest in tighter economic and political cooperation in East Asia. At the same time, the economic and political center of gravity in the region is gradually shifting to China. The leadership problem that it entails may constitute a major obstacle on the road to deeper integration as well as add force to the need for collective action.

Contact: Web site: Sophie Boisseau du Rocher, Research Associate, Centre Asie, IFRI. Email: boisseau.centreasie@ifri.org, web site: http://www.ifri.org/

7. Toward a Stronger Foundation for U.S., Japan and China Relations, Year 2
Pacific Forum, CSIS, U.S.

Description: The second of a three-year project to develop a stronger foundation for US, Japan and China relations by developing concrete and in-depth policy for furthering trilateral cooperation in several specific areas. This project addresses China's rising economic status, Japan's increasing activity in international affairs and rising nationalism in Japan and China and how this may affect relationships among the three.

Related events: Earlier phase of the project included a conference on November 10, 2003 in Tokyo hosted by the Research Institute for Peace and Security (RIPS), Japan, in collaboration with Pacific Forum, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and China Institute of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR).

Funding: Sponsored partly by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership (CGP) and the Japan-United States Friendship Commission.

Contact: Web site: http://www.csis.org/pacfor/

Non-Traditional Security

8. Energy and Environmental Cooperation on the Korean Peninsula
Royal Institute for International Affairs, U.K.

Description: This study examines the options available for energy co-operation on the peninsula, and particularly the case for developing a natural gas supply from the Russian Federation to the Korean peninsula. A second part of the project aims to draw relevant lessons from the European region with regard to energy cooperation between political adversaries. Lessons from the German and Iberian Peninsula cases give a real insight as to how the difficulties of energy cooperation between neighboring countries with a history of adversarial relations can be resolved. The third part of the project examines the potential for environmental cooperation between the two Koreas and their neighbors.

Premise: One of the most important issues for North Korea's economic development is how to secure energy, in particular, environmental-friendly energy in the long-term. Currently, the country's main energy sources are coal and hydro-power. Its high quality coal reserves have already been consumed and the quality of the remaining coal is declining. As the existing facilities of both coal and hydro plants are not properly managed, a massive investment to refurbish the plants is urgently needed. For South Korea, its energy shortage is a matter of national importance. Although there have been arguments over the necessity of building more nuclear power plants, there have also been strong local objections to such a strategy. To secure environmental-friendly energy is a national priority and the increased use of natural gas could serve this purpose. The south east of Russia has a significant reserves of natural gas, but a long distance pipeline is required if this gas is to serve the needs of China, Korea and Japan. The DPRK's admission in 2002 that it had reactivated its nuclear programme brought the region to the edge of crisis. Both energy and environmental factors are certain to play a very important role in promoting a peaceful settlement to the problems currently faced.

Funding: Undertaken with the support of the Korea Foundation.

Output: A report will be published in early 2005.

Contact: Web site: The project is being led by Dr Keun-Wook Paik, an associate of the Sustainable Development Programme, and is being jointly run by the Asia Programme and Sustainable Development Programme at Chatham House. Web site: http://www.riia.org/index.php?id=252

9. "Energy Security and Sustainable Development in Northeast Asia: Prospects for Cooperative Policies"
Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (ERINA), Japan and the Northeast Asia Economic Forum (NEAEF), East-West Center, U.S.

Description: 2-year research and dialogue project.

Related events: Forum in February 2004. Participants discussed the major energy projects in the region including cross-border power grids and gas pipelines and the various nations' energy policies. They concluded that cooperation is needed for continuous energy supply, greater environmental responsibility, regional economic development and strengthened regional stability and security. They suggested it may also be a mechanism for resolving the issue of North Korea.

Funding: Support from the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership (CGP).

Contact: Web site: email: naec@erina.or.jp, web site: http://naec.erina.or.jp/En/index_e.html

10. Human Security: Comparing Japanese and Canadian Governmental Thinking and Practice

Description: Akiko Fukushima, Director of Policy Studies and Senior Fellow, National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Tokyo, Japan. Completed March 26, 2004. Research was undertaken during 2003 and 2004.

Output: Research paper to be posted on web site of the Canadian Consortium on Human Security (CCHS). The paper looks into the fact that in the latter half of the 1990s both Canada and Japan introduced and then promoted the idea of "human security" in their respective foreign policies. However, the two countries diverged in how they defined and implemented human security. The research looks at the two approaches and examines if there really are fundamental differences.

Typically, Japan focuses on freedom from want, while Canada focuses on freedom from fear; Japan shies away from human rights, while Canada asserts their importance; and Japan avoids humanitarian intervention, while Canada emphasizes intervention, including the use of force. These discrepancies seemingly led to tension between the Japanese and Canadian governments, however, this research reveals that the two approaches are really not that divergent. While the Canadian approach certainly includes support for humanitarian intervention involving the use of force, the Canadians view this as a means of last resort, rather than as a primary mechanism. In the practical implementation of human security, their approaches are showing signs of convergence and the ultimate goal of global peace and security is commonly shared.

A comparison of the two approaches also puts forth the question of whether, and how, human security can survive as a policy instrument. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the idea of human security has been affected by the recent developments in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as by the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington.

Contact: Web site: http://www.humansecurity.info/CCHS_web/Home/en/index.php

11. Institution-Building for Human Security—From Asian Perspectives
Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan

Description: Ongoing project which seeks to develop an agenda for promoting human security from Asian perspectives by looking at how states, international organizations, and non-state actors have sought to protect human life in the region. Potential themes include: postwar Japanese experience in "humanizing" the security apparatus, UN intervention in Southeast Asia, criminal justice in Cambodia and East Timor, the International Criminal Court, and the UN and NGO community for basic human needs.

Premise: Human security is a positive concept of security denoting freedom from multiple sources of threat to human life, such as repressive violence against political dissent and minorities, economic deprivation and political exclusion, but also unconventional sources of threat (AIDS, environmental scarcity, drugs as well as human trafficking).

Contact: Web site: Kawaguchi Kazuko and Sorpong Peou. Web site: http://www.aglos-sophia.jp/en/index.html

12. "Non-Traditional Security Issues in Asia"
Institute for Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), Singapore.

Description: Phase II (2003-2005) of the project aims to develop conceptual frameworks and methodological tools for investigating how and why non-traditional security (NTS) issues arise, how they are defined and the responses of governments and non-sate actors. It is hoped this framework could be used to provide cross-sub-regional comparisons on different issues areas in Asia. The program's overarching objective is to facilitate discussion on non-traditional aspects of security as they relate to Asia in the post-Cold War security environment. The main concerns are migration, health, transnational crime, the environment, and stateless populations. Phase I looked at "Non-traditional security issues in Southeast Asia".

Premise: A new understanding of security has emerged. Conventionally related to the defense of state sovereignty and territorial integrity from overt military aggression, the concern of security has now expanded to include unconventional challenges such as acts of terrorism sponsored by non-state actors against states; the globalization of religious radicalism and identity/ethnic politics; the challenges of rebuilding war-devastated failed states such as Afghanistan; and the need to address poverty and underdevelopment. While the nature and direction of the post-September 11 international security order remains unclear, what seems certain is the tendency of governments and policy communities to designate and treat an ever increasing list of national and transnational issues as security issues. Although states continue to play a significant part in securitizing various issues, the act of securitization is not confined to states. Increasingly, public debates and the accentuation of various NTS issues as security concerns have been spearheaded by a growing number of non-official and/or semi-official actors, including international organizations, NGOs, foundations, lobby and pressure groups, as well as academic and research centers. Indeed, civil society actors have been at the forefront of the effort to rethink security. Their actions signal the competing and/or complementary practices of both state and civil societal actors in the securitization of NTS issues. Asia provides fascinating examples of state and civil societal actors engaging in the securitization of NTS issues. Investigating how NTS issues are perceived, played out, and addressed in this broad and fascinating region, remains an exciting but as yet unfulfilled intellectual quest.

Related events: At the Inaugural Project Conference in Singapore in September 2003, a number of scholars working on NTS issues from Southeast, Northeast and South Asia who were chosen through open competition, came together to discuss a range of NTS topics. These included Infectious Diseases and Human Security in Asia-Pacific, Illegal Migration, Piracy, Transnational Crime, Environment Resource Development and Management and Food Security. The meeting provided a good opportunity for the 11 Ford grantee institutions to meet and explore common interests and methods for working collaboratively on the broad subject of NTS in Asia. A project conference to be held in Singapore in September 2004 will be the final opportunity to fine-tune methodologies and put the finishing touches to their papers at this workshop. This will be followed by a Second Project Workshop to be held in Hong Kong or Beijing in October 2004. The second regional workshop will extend the discussion on NTS issues. It will address the securitization of migration and financial flows, and other NTS issues pertaining to China and the region. Finally, there will be two Dissemination Seminars in early 2005. To be held in Thailand and Indonesia, the objective of these seminars is to share our findings with policy communities in other countries encountering NTS challenges. A selection of papers will be discussed. The aim is to generate in-depth and policy-relevant discussions on the nature of NTS challenges, and how securitization/ desecuritization may help policymakers deal with these challenges.

Funding: Funded by the Ford Foundation.

Contact: Web site: http://www.idss-nts.org/

13. Piracy and Robbery in the Asian Seas
International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS), Leiden, Netherlands and Centre for Maritime Research (MARE), Amsterdam

Description: A new initiative to catalyze research on the topic of piracy and robbery in the Asian Seas. Intellectually supported by a group of national and international scholars, IIAS and MARE are currently working on the set up of a multidisciplinary research program on piracy and robbery. The goal of the program is to explore the historical and contemporary dimensions of piracy in order to trace continuities with the past and document the changes that have taken place in contemporary piracy. Regional focus will be put on East and Southeast Asian waters

Related events: An inaugural event took place in September 2003 when two panel sessions and a round table discussion were held during the MARE Conference People and the Sea II. A second round table discussion to explore the directions for future research on piracy was organized in March 2004 during the AAS (Association for Asian Studies) in San Diego, the United States. In addition, there are two upcoming events:

  1. Terrorism, Piracy and Maritime Security, 23-24 September 2004, Singapore. The purpose of the workshop is to explore the connection between maritime security, piracy and maritime terrorism in light of contemporary factors, such as the involvement of separatist groups like those in Aceh, and developments, such as the transformation of piracy into a threat in terms of the environmental and infrastructural destruction it can have on the Straits of Malacca. This workshop will be hosted by the Institute for South-East Asian Studies (ISEAS) in Singapore.
  2. Ports, Pirates and Hinterlands in East and Southeast Asia: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, November 2005, Shanghai. An important focus will be how port authorities operate, and how they combat, condone or even encourage different forms of piracy and smuggling. Whereas in the past, in certain situations, ports or port towns may have acted as piracy headquarters, in most cases they have been places of refuge for vessels attacked by pirates. During this workshop, the stakes of various players, such as port authorities, governments, traders, sailors, and pirates, will be discussed in the social, political, and economic context in which piracy has been taking place. The Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (SASS) will host this workshop.

Contact: Web site: Coordinator: Dr Manon Osseweijer, Coordinator of Academic Affairs, IIAS, email: m.osseweijer@let.leidenuniv.nl, web site: http://www.iias.nl/iias/research/piracy/

14. Political Violence and Terrorism Programme
Institute for Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), Singapore.

Description: This program comes under the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR). One of its major projects has been the establishment of a terrorism database. While most other terrorism databases have a global focus with particular emphasis on the Middle East, the ICPVTR database focuses on the Asia Pacific region and especially Southeast Asia, which is important given that there is currently little attention on the latter in terms of open source information on terrorism. The database is a repository of overt information on terrorist groups, individuals, incidents and other general information on terrorism.

Related events: There have also been a series of workshops and preparations have also been made to prepare a counter-terrorism training course for law-enforcement and line officers of the ten ASEAN countries. To be led by Dr. Gunaratna, this counter-terrorism course will be conducted in collaboration with the University of Wollongong and a software and technical support company, The Distillery, both based in Australia. The course is scheduled to commence in the first half of 2004.

Output: In 2004, the Programme will upgrade the terrorism database and make it accessible to users outside IDSS.

Contact: Web site: http://www.ntu.edu.sg/idss/research_03a.htm

15. Program on Human Security
Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences (CBRSS), Harvard University, U.S.

Description: Ongoing interdisciplinary research initiative which tackles an issue of increasing global concern: the inadequacy of our present formulation of "human security." The initiative combines public health, international relations, and statistical methodology to re-define human security and to provide more reliable methods of measuring it.

Premise: While political scientists in international relations are ideally suited to study the outbreak of war and statistical methodologists to provide the best tools for its measurement, public health scholars are unique in their proficiency for understanding the human costs of military conflict. Political scientists at Harvard's Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences have already provided the first valid forecasts of when war will occur. Now with accurate forecasting methods at their disposal, program scholars can now prepare the ground for more reliable research into strategies for the prevention of war.

Funding: Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (WCFIA), and the Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences (CBRSS) at Harvard University, in collaboration with the Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy at the World Health Organization (WHO).

Output: The outcome promises to have profound and far-reaching implications for the global movement in international public policy toward redefining human security.

Contact: Web site: Project Coordinator Kim Schader, email: kschader@latte.harvard.edu, web site: http://www.cbrss.harvard.edu/programs/hsecurity.htm

16. Understanding the Dynamics of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
East-West Center, U.S.

Description: Project staff are working with national health programs and other partners in the region to conduct in-depth integrated analyses and synthesis of the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in several key Asian hot spots, including Yunnan in China. They will identify features, characteristics, and components of effective HIV prevention programs. The project is aimed at developing an innovative collaboration between scholars, scientists, and decision makers in addressing the HIV epidemic in China and other Asian countries.

Funding: Supported by the United States Agency for International Development and UNAIDS.

Output:

  1. Computer package to help national program managers and planners make better estimates of HIV prevalence and assess the likely future impact of HIV and AIDS
  2. Network of behavioral scientists to help with future HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in the region
  3. Reports & Publications: HIV/AIDS in Asia, HIV/AIDS in China: Survey Provides Guidelines for Improving Awareness, HIV/AIDS Risk in the Philippines: Focus on Adolescents and Young Adults, Tackling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Asia, The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Asia.

Contact: Web site: Tim Brown—Senior Fellow, email: tim@wiliki.eng.hawaii.edu
Jiajian Chen—Senior Fellow, email: chenj@eastwestcenter.org. Paper available at http://www.eastwestcenter.org/res-rp-publicationdetails.asp?pub_ID=1447

17. Urban Poverty and Social Safety Nets in East Asia
East Asian Development Network Research (EADN)

Description: This project was initiated in 2003 and is being coordinated by Dr Zhang Yunling of the Institute of Asia Pacific Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Beijing). The research papers, yet to be finalized, are written from the following country perspectives: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, as well as a general paper on urban poverty and social safety nets in East Asia as a whole.

Related events: An interim Research Workshop was held in Beijing in April 2004.

Contact: Web site: EADN email: siia_eadn@pacific.net.sg, web site: www.eadn.org

Regional Cooperation and Community Building

18. ASEAN+3 Research Group
ASEAN Secretariat

Description: Ongoing research. The main themes that the group hopes to analyze are: strengthening regional self-help and support mechanisms (such as exploring ways to enhance the network of bilateral swap arrangements (BSAs) by earmarking portions of regional countries' foreign currency reserves for the scheme); managing short-term capital flow and exchange rate regimes; coordinating exchange rate policy in the region; and drawing on European experiences of creating monetary union. Currently searching for researchers to examine a number of topics related to ASEAN and East Asia. Individuals are required to be nationals of ASEAN. Current topics are: Economic Surveillance and Policy Dialogue in East Asia, Trade, Investment and Financial Integration in East Asia, Exploring Ways to Enhance the Functions of the Chiang Mai Initiative in the Medium Term and The Role of Private Sector Development in Regional Economic Growth and Financial Integration.

Contact: Web site: Previous research papers can be found at http://www.mof.go.jp/jouhou/kokkin/ASEAN+3research.htm, web site: http://www.aseansec.org/ASEAN+3.htm

19. Crafting Cooperation: Regional Institution Design in Comparative Perspective
Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University and the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Description: 2 year project. 15 experts on international relations. The project is the first theoretically informed comparative study of regional institutions. This project seeks to answer the following questions. Why do different forms of institutionalization develop in different regions of the world? And to what extent variations in institutionalization affect the performance of institutions? Are the more formalized, bureaucratized and often times intrusive institutions of European cooperation more effective than the more informal, weakly organized 'talk-shops' of Asia-Pacific in promoting cooperation? To investigate these and other related questions is the purpose of the Harvard-IDSS project on comparative regionalism.

Premise: During the past decade, regionalism has received increasing attention as a major potential force for global change. While regionalism has been a consistent feature of the global security and economic architecture since World War II, the end of the Cold War and economic regionalization in the context of a rapidly integrating global economy have led to a new emphasis on regionalism. But the make-up and performance of regional organizations around the world is marked by a great deal of diversity. For example, Europe not only exhibits the highest institutional density in terms of the number of overlapping regional mechanisms, but individual European regional groupings also tend to be more heavily institutionalized and intrusive, especially in terms of their approach to issues that affect state sovereignty (such as human rights). Yet, they lag behind many other regions, such as Africa and Asia, in terms of their inclusiveness and flexibility in decision-making. Asian institutions, relatively new on the international stage, have claimed uniqueness in terms of their decision-making norms and approach to socialization, but many have questioned their effectiveness in managing security dilemmas and the economic vulnerabilities of their members.

Related events: Conference called "Crafting Cooperation", held in Singapore on May 17-18, 2004.

Funding: Funding has been received from Harvard University Asia Center, the Asia Pacific Policy Programme of Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, Lee Foundation (Singapore), University of Warwick's Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization and the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies.

Output: The research product will provide important insights into why institutional design varies across regions, whether (by implication) we can treat regional subsystems as more determinative of actor behaviour and interstate outcomes than the international system writ large, and whether variation in the 'quality' of cooperation within and across regions has anything to do with institutional design. This last question has important policy implications. If indeed institutional design matters in this way, then it becomes a critical variable that is, in principle, more amenable to human agency than factors such as 'distributions of power' or 'historical / cultural' path dependent development.

Contact: Web site: Contact co-directors Professor Amitav Acharya of IDSS and Alastair Iain Johnston of Harvard. Web site: http://www.ntu.edu.sg/idss/research_03a.htm

20. East Asian Community Building and the Implications for the United States
United States Asia Pacific Council

Description: First project of the United States Asia Pacific Council, which was created in 2003. The Council comprises many of the most prominent Asia specialists in the U.S. The Council was formed with the support of the U.S. Department of State, and comprises American corporations and citizens who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of the U.S. relationship with Asian and Pacific nations. The Council is a vehicle through which the knowledge and experience of its members inform and enhance U.S. engagement with the region. The Council is hosted by and administered through the East-West Center, a U.S. and internationally funded non-profit research and educational institution dedicated to the further development of a Pacific community.

Output: A policy paper for release near the end of 2004 on the topic of US responses to East Asian regionalism. The paper will summarize broad regional economic and political trends and developments in East Asian regional cooperation against a background of current US foreign policy towards East Asia. The briefing document will attempt to provide a broad consensus on policy priorities and choices for the next U.S. administration as well as clarify the factors that underlie current "regionalist" trends in the Asian region.

Contact: Web site: Mark Borthwick, email: BorthwiM@EastWestCenter.org, web site: http://www.usapc.org/

21. Labour Migration and East Asian Integration
East Asian Development Network Research (EADN)

Description: This project was initiated in 2003 and being coordinated by Dr Chia Siow Yue of the Singapore Institute of International Affairs. The research papers look at the concepts, laws and economic integration impacts related to the in and outflows of labour migration from the perspectives of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

Related events: An interim Workshop will be held in Jakarta in July 2004.

Contact: Web site: EADN email: siia_eadn@pacific.net.sg, web site: www.eadn.org

22. NIRA's Comprehensive Vision (Grand Design) for the Development of Northeast Asia (Phase 2)
National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Japan.

Description: March 2003 - March 2004. The first phase of this project revealed possible approaches for creating the Northeast Asian grand design such as building infrastructure and policies for forwarding regional integration focussed on the economy, in areas such as natural gas and oil pipelines, transport and shipping capabilities, as well as clustering industries in key areas. This project is designed to be a pilot for determining ways that the countries can cooperate economically leading to mutual economic prosperity and a peaceful community. The creation of a roadmap to community is intended to attract investment from both inside and outside the region.

Premise: It has become increasingly necessary to formulate a grand design looking at the present situation and future possibilities for development throughout Northeast Asia, and how to advance and expand development in the region in order to make it conducive to continuous development. This is owing to the fact there are many movements towards multilateral cooperation and cooperative economic development, such as the possibility of a China-Japan-Korea FTA.

Output: Researchers will create a roadmap to a Northeast Asian community and plan to propose the creation in Northeast Asia of a multilateral cooperative body for economics and development similar to the OECD, with the membership of the 6 countries in the region.

Contact: Web site: http://naec.erina.or.jp/En/index_e.html or http://www.nira.go.jp/newse/niranews/200406/200406.html

23. Political Transition and Development in East Asia
East Asian Development Network Research (EADN)

Description: This project was initiated in 2003 and being coordinated by Dr Hadi Soesastro of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (Indonesia). This topic will be analyzed in a series of country/ region papers from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.

Related events: An interim Workshop will be held in Jakarta in July 2004.

Contact: Web site: EADN email: siia_eadn@pacific.net.sg, web site: www.eadn.org

24. Research on the Free Trade Area among Japan, China and South Korea (Trilateral Joint Research on the Long-term Vision of Northeast Asia: Phase 1)
National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Japan.

Description: January 2004-December 2005. The origin of this trilateral joint research project dates to the ASEAN+3 Conference held in November 1999, at which it was agreed upon at this meeting that a joint research project would be conducted by the three nations to strengthen economic cooperation between them. The Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) of China, the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP) of South Korea, and the National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA) have explored the topic since 2001. This research project intends to analyze the trilateral FTA in greater detail building upon the results of the previous research project. This research project aims to explore in depth the optimal trilateral FTA and the FTA Japan should pursue by analyzing the policies adopted and the impact of the trilateral FTA on individual industries.

Premise: In the world economy, liberalization of trade and investment advanced on a global scale and efforts to realize systematic regional integration became active beginning in the 1990s. Northeast Asia, the region in which Japan, China and South Korea are located, has achieved rapid development and evolved into an important region capable of competing with North America and Europe in terms of production, trade and investment capacities. However, the region lacks a systemized process for regional integration. Japan, increasingly involved in negotiations for bilateral FTAs, has begun to place attention on a free trade agreement between Japan, China and South Korea.

Contact: Web site: http://www.nira.go.jp/newse/niranews/200403/200403.html#2

25. Research on the Future Image of East Asia: With the Preconditions of Economic Integration and Cooperation
National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Japan.

Description: April 2003-March 2004. The impact on the East Asian economy of the accession of Mainland China and Taiwan to the WTO, and the effectuation of the Japan-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (JESPA) will be analyzed in this research project together with the problems that may arise. In addition, the trend towards free trade agreements (FTA) of the respective nations and the region as a whole will be analyzed. On the basis of these analyses, the future course of the nations as well as the East Asian region itself will be examined with special emphasis on economic integration and cooperation.

Related events: As part of this project, an international conference participated in by prominent researchers and specialists will be held. It is expected that a wide range of discussions will be developed with a focus on the role of South China, and future problems and perspectives of regional cooperation in East Asia.

Contact: Web site: http://www.nira.go.jp/newse/niranews/200305/200305.html#1

26. The Optimal Economic Cooperation of East Asia in Pursuit of Joint Prosperity and the Possibilities for Establishing an Economic Union
National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), Japan

Description: April 2004-March 2005. This project brings together researchers from various countries in East Asia including China, Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan. Analysis will be done on the various relevant topics for and effects of China's accession to the WTO, the Japan-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA), and ASEAN+3 and the China, Japan, Korea FTA negotiations on the East Asian economy as a whole.

Premise: Last year Japan commenced negotiations with South Korea and Thailand towards the conclusion of FTAs. In addition, in the Japan ASEAN Commemorative Summit held in December last year, the "Tokyo Declaration for the Dynamic and Enduring Japan-ASEAN Partnership in the New Millennium" was adopted. This declaration which includes the "East Asian Community Plan" confirmed that the economic integration of East Asia will be sought as a common goal.

Related events: Conference on the various topics of economic cooperation and community as well as the outlook for that, bringing together both researchers and practitioners.

Contact: Web site: Tetsuya Koizumi. Web site: http://www.nira.go.jp/newse/niranews/200405/200405.html