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Research Project Monitor: Training

1. Asia-Pacific Center College of Security Studies 12-Week Executive Course

Overview and Objectives
The Asia-Pacific Center is an academic institution that was established by the US Pacific Command for the study of regional security and preventive defense in the Asia-Pacific. It cites its mission as enhancing cooperation and building relationships through mutual understanding and study of comprehensive security issues among military and civilian representatives of the US and other Asia-Pacific nations. The APCSS provides military and civilian officials a location in which to exchange ideas, explore pressing issues and develop an improved understanding of the challenges that shape the security environment of the region. The primary focus of the APCSS is the College of Security Studies, in which military and civilian officials from the region (lieutenant colonels, commanders, colonels, captains, brigadier generals and rear admirals as well as their civilian counterparts in security-related ministries) engage in a 12-week exploration of Asia-Pacific security. Participants focus upon past and present regional security issues, potential security problems and roles and missions of the military.

The curriculum of the Executive Course is based upon several principles. First, and of primary importance, it focuses on the non-warfighting aspects of international relations and security. Second, the course utilizes not simply a US-centred view of security interests and concerns, but rather focuses on a regional perspective. Third, security is conceived broadly, as a mixture of political, economic, social and military components. Fourth, the course emphasizes national level strategies and policies, with operational and tactical level issues as a secondary concern.

APCSS Directors
H.C. Stackpole, APCSS President
Jimmie R. Lackey, Executive Director
Colonel Steven B. Walker (USAF), Dean of Admissions
LTC Thomas Patykula, Chief of Admissions
MAJ James Wood, Registrar

APCSS Staff
The Center's staff and faculty currently number 86, but this total is anticipated to reach 122 once the organization reaches maturity. As the organization matures, the overall staff is also expected to become more broadly representative of the countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, a number of international faculty member positions, as well as a full-time international advisor position, will be filled on a rotating basis from the Asia-Pacific countries.

Funding Source
Funding for the Center is provided by the United States Department of Defense.

Participants
The third and final graduating class of 1999 was the largest to date, with a total of 53 graduates. The graduating class of December 2, 1999 was the ninth to have completed the course. Senior military and government officials from 26 countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region graduated on that day. The countries represented were as follows: Bangladesh, Brunei, Canada, Fiji, India, Japan, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam and the United States. To date, the College has hosted 348 participants from 35 countries, and the Center has hosted or co-hosted 29 conferences or seminars with more than 2000 attendees, representing 50 countries.

Course Dates 2000
The course will run three times in 2000:

Senior Executive Course
The College of Security Studies also features a Senior Executive Course that will take place May 15-19 in 2000. This course is an intensive, 5-day program offered to military officers at the two and three star level and civilian equivalents from the Asia-Pacific region. The theme of the upcoming course is "Security Cooperation in a Time of Strategic Uncertainty." The curriculum emphasizes the impact of economic, political and technological change in the region on evolving military roles and capabilities. Benefitting from guest speakers, interactive workshops and seminar game scenarios, Senior Fellows share perspectives and develop cooperative approaches to security issues of common concern.

Contact Information
Barbara O'Neal or Jason Holm Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Public Affairs Office

Telephone:
1-808-971- 8916 (O'Neal)
1-808-971-8926 (Holm)
Fax:
1-808-971-8999
E-mail:
pao@apcss.org
Address:
Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
2255 Kuhio Avenue, Suite 1900
Honolulu, Hawaii 96815
USA

Detailed participation criteria and curriculum information available at the APCSS website: http://www.apcss.org

2. International Symposium Course on Asian-Pacific Security in the 21st Century

Dates and Venue
The course ran from October 8 - December 10, 1999 at the People's Liberation Army National Defence University (PLA NDU) Campus Number 3, 50 Shuiku Road, Changping, Beijing District, China. Campus Number 3 is the PLA NDU International Fellows Department Campus. The course spanned 70 days, including 44 academic days, 6 administration days and 20 weekend days.

Course Details
This course is the first of the sort offered by the PLA. It was on an invitation-only basis with invitations issued to military and government officials by the NDU through the Foreign Affairs Office of the Department of National Defense. The course is the first at the PLA NDU in which foreigners and PLA members have been classmates.

Course Steering Committee

Head:
Major General Pan Zhenqiang, Professor and former Director of the Institute for Strategic Studies, NDU
Members:
Senior Colonel Zhang Yining, Professor NDU
Senior Colonel Ding Bangquan, Research Professor of the Institute for Strategic Studies, NDU
Academic Secretary:
Lieutenant Colonel Xu Hui, Instructor NDU

Participants
Australia (1), Canada (1), Japan (1), New Zealand (2), Pakistan (1), Singapore (3), Thailand (2) and China (5). Note that the invitation was originally sent to 11 countries inviting from one to three officers or officials of Colonel or equivalent rank. It was originally hoped that there would be approximately 40 participants, but late issue of the official invitation (mid-August) militated against greater participation. The course director indicated that he had hoped to be able to invite a larger Western participation, but the Kosovo situation and the bombing of the Chinese Embassy changed those plans. Major General Pan noted that he hopes a similar course can be offered annually with a larger group of participants.

Objectives
Participants note the following objectives: (1) to engage in a security dialogue forum, (2) to build confidence and trust between China and other countries and (3) to enhance knowledge of China and Chinese security perspectives. The Northeast Asia Peace and Security Network (NAPSNet) of the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development notes the following comments on course objectives from General Chi Haotian, Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission, State Councilor and Chinese Minister of National Defence:

...the PRC should study the new characteristics and training procedures of foreign military officials and further carry out the diplomatic principles and policies of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and President Jiang Zemin's important statements on the international strategic issues. Chi said that as the highest military learning institute in the PRC, the university has taken the lead in the training of foreign military officials, accumulated valuable experience, and a good example for the People's Liberation Army. He pointed out that under the new international situation, the training of foreign military officials should be expanded as an important way of international military cooperation and a way to improve the unity and cooperation with other countries.

(As noted in the Northeast Asia Peace and Security Network Daily Report on December 8, 1999. Contact: Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development, fax: 1-510-204-9298, e-mail: nautilus@nautilus.org website: http://www.nautilus.org/ )

Curriculum Overview
Symposium I

General Overview of the Security Situation

Symposium II

Symposium III

Course Requirements
Each participant was required to write a 5000 word "academic" paper (in English) on a subject related to Asia Pacific security.

Publication
There is expected to be a publication of the academic papers written by course participants, but no further details are available at this time.

Funding
The source of funding was a mixture of a tuition and accommodation fee paid by the invited governments for each participant, as well as funding from the PLA NDU.

Further Information
Mailing address: NDU Campus 3, P.O. Box 1020, Beijing 102249 PRC
Fax: 86-10-6971-9294

Thank you to 1999 Canadian participant Colonel David Burke for supplying course information.

Further comments on the course are available in an article entitled "Military Lessons: The People's Liberation Army lifts the curtain a bit, allowing foreign officers into its classrooms," in the Far Eastern Economic Review November 4, 1999, page 28.